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Data are transmitted across a network at this layer. Because this layer deals with local network transmission exclusively, there is no universal TCP/IP protocol available. Two commonly used protocols called ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) and RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) are used on many networks such as Ethernet and Token Ring. Note that these two protocols are sometimes viewed as being part of the network layer. The physical layer transmits the signal along the various networks in the form of electrical pulses.
A protocol is a set of coded characters at the beginning and end of a message that enables one machine (as a computer) to communicate with another. It is a formal specification controlling the meaning of different messages passing between sending and receiving computers. There are two dominant nonproprietary protocols: (1) Open System Interconnection (OSI), (2) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). TCP/IP is the primary protocol used on the Internet. The DCE RPC allows developers to add or replace hardware, database, or the Graphical User Interface (GUI) as needed.
The distributed time service provides a mechanism for synchronizing the clocks on each computer in a DCE network. It provides time marking, which is used in many transactional applications. The security service provides authentication and authorization across a heterogeneous network. It validates that clients (users or programs) are what they say they are and determines whether they have access to the resources they request. Security permits applications to communicate with one another. There must be at least one security server for each DCE cell.