A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism by Alan Campbell Wares

By Alan Campbell Wares

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Examples: /i/ ito 'stomach', ipá 'arrow', xavik 'two', rú>üyk 'black', ¿'/ 'salt'; /e/ ciyér 'bird', kwés 'yellow', xpé 'metate', xamsé 'star' ; /a/ akò'y 'old woman', análv 'mesquite', imâk 'dance', avxáy 'dress', χά 'water', iyá 'mouth'; /o/ óxk 'cough', yók 'vomit', xaltót 'spider', xkó 'grandchild', maspó 'bee' ; /u/ ucé 'charcoal', uskéw 'dove', xamúk 'three', rúvk 'dry', xavsú 'blue, green', ixú 'nose'. Vowel length is phonemic, as the following contrasts show: ipá 'arrow', ipá' 'man'; mât 'earth', imá't 'body'; avé 'snake', avé· 'mouse'.

The voiceless spirants in Paipai correspond to those in Walapai, but have different points of articulation. Although Paipai is geographically separated by more than three hundred miles from the northern group of Yuman languages, there are good linguistic reasons for including it in that group. The second of the above groups corresponds to Kroeber's "River group", and is distinguished by the voiced interdental spirant /d/ that corresponds to /y/ in other « Kroeber, A. , Classification of the Yuman Languages (UCPAAE, 1948), pp.

The semiconsonants of Τ are similar to those of Co. Examples: /y/ yaw 'tooth', yók 'vomit', sa'ywl 'trousers, skirt', miyúl 'sweet', ri»ixây 'wet', ksiyœy 'doctor'; /w/ wir 'hard', wâm 'to walk', towà 'to grind', cuwów 'to plant', yiw 'eye'. Tipai has a five-vowel system. Examples : /i/ ' r 'firewood', mar'i'k 'bean', miy 'foot' ; /e/ êè 'yes', sèi 'hand', maspé 'dead'; /a/ V a w 'fire', má{ 'earth', χά 'water'; /o/ 'ox 'cough', xanfók 'straight'; /u/ u'm 'owl', M / 'spider', tú 'belly'. Vowel length is phonemic in Tipai, as illustrated by the contrast in má{ 'earth', mât 'body'.

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