A History of Control Engineering 1800-1930 by Stuart Bennett

By Stuart Bennett

Dr. Bennett lines the starting to be information of the significance and the importance of the concept that of suggestions in engineering and treats intimately the technical advancements that contributed to this knowledge. There follows an account of the advance of steam and hydraulic servomechanisms and their program to the regulate of ships and airplane.

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To correct these deflciences, the Woodward Company developed a 'compensating' governor in 1901; compensation was achieved by adding a minor feedback loop (Fig. 18) which used a proportion of the movement of the sluice control shaft to *back off the governor movement. demanded speed Fig. 18 Block diagram of Woodward relay governor Mechanical systems involving clutches or points suffer from problems of wear, and mechanical servogovernors were gradually replaced by hydraulically operated relay governors.

A good example of this form of governor is the 'Scholfield' governor, patented by N. 104 A shaft carrying two eccentrics set 180° apart is continually rotated by the water wheel; the eccentrics operate two reciprocating arms at the ends of which are pawls, set facing in opposite directions. The pawls engage in ratchet wheels attached to the shaft which positions the control gate. If the speed is correct, the governor holds both of the pawls clear of the ratchet wheel; should the speed drop the pawl which turns the shaft so as to open the control gate is allowed to engage its ratchet wheel;if the speed rises, the other pawl is allowed to engage.

But it was rendered completely useless by the continued disturbance of the throttle valve, after the proper position had been reached . . This difficulty was then obviated by a very simple expedient, namely by attaching to the sliding-piece of the governor an air cylinder . . In rising or falling, the balls were made to suck or force air into or out of a small adjustable aperature in the top of this cylinder; and in this way no velocity or momentum in the vertical direction was allowed to accumulate.

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