Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 6 by Hayne W. Reese (Ed.)

By Hayne W. Reese (Ed.)

This quantity, one in a sequence, bargains with the constitution of developmental concept, recursive platforms, kid's iconic realism, the position of cognition in figuring out gender results, the advance of processing velocity in early life and formative years and extra.

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How do these two sources of motivation combine to produce learning and performance in children? In general two parallel lines of research have emerged in the work of Gewirtz, Stevenson, and others who have used constant verbal rewards to study determinants of drive variation in performance, and in the efforts of Siegel, the author, and others who have varied material rewards with drive fluctuating at random to investigate the consequences of incentive magnitude upon two-choice selective learning.

Lo, in enhancing verbal choices over the total population. Given a choice between two reinforced stimuli, the children tended to favor 100% verbal reward to 50% material reward in the last four trial blocks. A triple interaction between sex, schedule, and instruction represented in Fig. 3 was more revealing. Boys in the Skill, but not Chance condition responded strongly to the schedule, but the opposite was obtained for girls. The boys distributed their choices rather evenly between verbal and material incentives, except in the Skill 100-50 condition, where they made a large number of verbal choices.

In a multidimensional situation, what a child attends to is determined not only by the position of a given incentive in his reward hierarchy, but also by past associations of that incentive to a particular stimulus dimension. Our early pilot studies failed when we attempted between-groups tests of incentive magnitude upon selective learning; no differences were obtained between independent groups because almost any reward value, high or low, constituted a contrast effect with zero reward so as to make incentives equivalent across groups.

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