By Raymond L. Bisplinghoff, Holt Ashley, Robert L.Halfman

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The aforementioned procedure provides coarse initialization of roll, pitch, and yaw (or equivalently, the body‐to‐nav DCM). Fine leveling and yaw/azimuth determination typically involve the use of a Kalman filter and the exploitation of the knowledge that the velocity (of a 14 Aerospace Navigation Systems stationary vehicle) is zero. The fine initialization Kalman filter is generally of the same type as that used to integrate external radio navigation aid information while the vehicle is in motion.

To the first order, effective gravity is aligned with the local vertical (note that since the Earth is ellipsoidal, extension of the local vertical down to the equatorial plane does not intersect the mass center of the Earth, unless one is located at the poles or on the equator). Conceptually, the Coriolis term may be understood as follows: Consider a vehicle that starts at the North Pole and travels due south along a meridian (path of constant longitude). , no east–west motion). However, relative to the i‐frame, the path is clearly curved due to the rotation of the Earth.

These are the bias errors that remain after calibration/compensation and are different each time a given sensor is powered on. A secondary effect is scale factor error. The inherent noise in the sensors primarily drives the amount of filtering/averaging required during initialization. 4 Gravity Model Errors A variety of closed‐form gravity models exist (Hsu, 1998), which provide accuracies on the order of 5–10 µg. , the imaginary surface that defines Inertial Navigation Systems 15 zero altitude).