By Peter Fonagy
Winner of the 2003 Gradiva Award and the 2003 Goethe Award for Psychoanalytic Scholarship Arguing for the significance of attachment and emotionality within the constructing human cognizance, 4 popular analysts discover and refine the thoughts of mentalization and have an effect on law. Their daring, lively, and inspiring imaginative and prescient for psychoanalytic remedy combines parts of developmental psychology, attachment concept, and psychoanalytic process. Drawing broadly on case stories and up to date analytic literature to demonstrate their rules, Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, and objective supply versions of psychotherapy perform which may let the slow improvement of mentalization and have an effect on law even in sufferers with lengthy histories of violence or overlook.
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Extra resources for Affect regulation, mentalization, and the development of the self
The Epilogue explores s o m e of t h e implications of o u r ideas for psychopathology a n d p s y c h o t h e r a p y in general. PART T H E O R E T I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E S In Part I, we offer an introduction to some of the main theoretical concepts used in this book. The first chapter can be thought of as an overture. We offer definitions of self-reflective function and mentalization and, in particular, make the argument that the capacity to mentalize is a key determinant of a psychological sense of self.
T h u s , t h e a t t a c h m e n t system is a n o p e n biosocial h o m e o s t a t i c regulatory system. P A T T E R N S O F A T T A C H M E N T IN I N F A N C Y The second great pioneer of a t t a c h m e n t theory. Mary Ainsworth (1985; Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, a n d Wall 1978), developed t h e well-known laboratory-based p r o c e d u r e for observing infants' internal working models in action. Infants, briefly s e p a r a t e d from their caregiver in a situation unfamiliar to them, s h o w one of four p a t t e r n s of behavior: (a) Infants classified a s secure 38 / Theoretical Perspectives explore readily in t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e primary caregiver, are a n x i o u s in t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e s t r a n g e r a n d avoid her, are distressed by their caregiver's brief a b s e n c e , rapidly seek contact with h e r afterwards, a n d a r e r e a s s u r e d by t h i s contact, r e t u r n ing to their exploration, (b) Some infants, w h o a p p e a r to be m a d e less a n x i o u s by separation, m a y n o t s e e k proximity with -the caregiver following s e p a r a t i o n a n d m a y n o t prefer h e r over t h e stranger; t h e s e infants a r e designated anxious /avoidant (c) Anxious/resistant infants s h o w limited exploration a n d play, t e n d to be highly d i s t r e s s e d by t h e separation, a n d have great difficulty in settling afterwards, showing struggling, stiffness, c o n t i n u e d crying, or fuss in a passive way.
For r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s , we h a v e operationalized mentalization a s reflective function (Fonagy et al. 1998): we h a v e developed a tool by m e a n s of w h i c h t h e ability to give plausible interpretation of one's own a n d others' behavior in t e r m s of underlying m e n t a l s t a t e s c a n be m e a s u r e d . This implies a w a r e n e s s t h a t experiences give rise to certain beliefs a n d emotions, t h a t p a r t i c u l a r beliefs a n d desires tend to r e s u l t in certain k i n d s of behavior, t h a t t h e r e are t r a n s a c t i o n a l relationships between beliefs a n d emotions, a n d t h a t p a r t i c u l a r developmental p h a s e s or relations h i p s are associated with certain feelings a n d beliefs.