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Extra resources for Affirmative Action: A Reference Handbook
He also called for a government-wide review of federal programs in light of the rulings, as an extension of an ongoing inquiry about the rights and wrongs of affirmative action. Clinton's promised government-wide review of federal programs turned out to be a limited effort. When a portion of the report was released in 1996 and roused only passing interest, the administration considered itself victorious. The controversy over affirmative action temporarily died down. S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit struck down an affirmative action program at the University of Texas School of Law in Hopwood v.
Constitution. The "strict scrutiny" test means that any race-conscious program must "promote a compelling state interest" and be "necessary" or "narrowly tailored'' to reach that end. Because the Court expanded the application of that standard in Adarand, experts assume that fewer forms of affirmative action will be judged constitutional. On July 19, 1995, President Clinton, partially in response to Adarand, gave a major speech in support of affirmative action. " He also called for a government-wide review of federal programs in light of the rulings, as an extension of an ongoing inquiry about the rights and wrongs of affirmative action.
In higher education, most African Americans attended predominately black colleges, many established by states as segregated institutions. Most black colleges concentrated on teacher training to the exclusion Page 6 of professional education. Students who were interested in business were offered courses in business education rather than business administration. A few black students attended predominately white institutions; by 1954, about 1 percent of first-year students at white colleges and universities were black.