By D.R. Philpott, R.H. Barnard
Airplane Flight offers exact actual, instead of mathematical, descriptions of the rules of airplane flight. This well known textual content supplies mechanical engineering and aeronautical engineering scholars an invaluable creation to the topic. The fourth variation has been up to date to incorporate very important contemporary advancements similar to unmanned air autos and the low orbit space-plane
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Extra resources for Aircraft Flight: A description of the physical principles of aircraft flight
You may remember, that we described in Chapter 1, how the wing produced a circulatory effect; behaving like a vortex. QXD 14/9/09 15:20 Page 38 38 WINGS Fig. 1 Wing geometry understanding of aircraft aerodynamics came at the end of the nineteenth century, when the English engineer F. W. Lanchester reasoned that if a wing or lifting surface acts like a vortex, then it should possess all the general properties of a vortex. Long before the Wright Brothers’ ﬁrst ﬂight, a theory of vortex behaviour had been developed which indicated that a vortex could only persist if it either terminated in a wall at each end, or formed a closed ring like a smoke ring.
Highly tapered wings not only produce poor stall characteristics, but if the taper is excessive, the approximation to an elliptical lift distribution is inferior. It is unusual to ﬁnd aircraft where the tip chord is less than one third of the root chord, despite the structural advantages of a high taper. The shape of the wing tip also inﬂuences its stalling characteristics. The use of rounded or chamfered tips, as seen in Fig. 15, produces stable separated conical vortex ﬂow at high angles of attack, inhibiting tip stall.
On an unswept untapered wing, the upwash effect of inboard vortex lines is more than cancelled by the downwash produced by the large number of lines concentrated near the tip. On a swept untapered wing, the stronger inﬂuence of the inboard lines has the effect that the downwash decreases towards the tips. This is compounded by the fact that on a swept-wing conﬁguration, the bound vorticity on one wing produces a downwash effect on the other. The mutual interference effect will again tend to produce a greater downwash at the centre than at the tips.