By Wang Gungwu
Wang Gungwu's examine of the connection among China and the chinese language with imperial Britain examines the probabilities, in addition to the bounds in their encounters. past the clichГ©s of opium, combating, and the diplomatic abilities had to fend off opponents and enemies, Gungwu probes parts of extra intimate encounters, now not least of that's the start of a broader English-speaking destiny among the 2 nations.
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Additional info for Anglo-Chinese Encounters since 1800: War, Trade, Science and Governance
Xml CT003/Wang-Gungwu To fight December 27, 2002 14:4 39 American successors had helped to strengthen Chinese armies to fight the Japanese as well as other Chinese, the opportunity and need had finally come for Chinese on the mainland to take naval power seriously. The very untidiness that left the Nationalists on islands like Matsu and Quemoy symbolises that new start. The PRC’s failure to take both these islands underlined the urgency to produce new plans to take Taiwan. This had to include a modern navy.
Recent research has shown that the Qing emperors were not anti-merchants and did have practical ideas about raising revenues through domestic trade and thus developing the national economy. But this was not extended to trade with foreigners. What the Qianlong emperor could not accept was that the system of foreign trade should be changed to enable private merchants on both sides to trade freely, with only customs officials in charge. He had difficulty understanding that these foreign rulers would protect the interests of traders as a matter of policy, even of principle.
Sun’s former friends in Japan had their own agenda, not only to exploit China’s weakness but also to use China’s resources in order to enable Japan to be the dominant power in East Asia. 20 It is worth emphasising that, after the end of the First World War, the British had little to do with the Chinese ability to fight or even their desire to learn how to fight. They had been the first to introduce the Chinese to modern warfare but, having led the way into China, and already got most of what they wanted, the challenge of the other powers, notably Meiji Japan, Tsarist Russia and Bismarck’s Germany, made them cautious.