By Lamont V. Blake
This accomplished revision is a senior undergraduate or first-year graduate point textbook on antenna basics, layout, functionality research, and measurements. as well as its use as a proper direction textbook, it's well-suited for pro education and self-study through working towards engineers, scientists, and technologists who wish to extend their wisdom of antennas. The booklet presents a extensive insurance of antenna varieties and phenomena, for operations at very low radio frequencies, in addition to frequencies as much as these of submillimeter wavelengths. not like such a lot university-level antenna textbooks, studying it doesn't require earlier abilities in electromagnetic concept, refined arithmetic, or laptop programming.
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Additional resources for Antennas - Fundamentals, Design, Measurement
Decibel (Logarithmic) Expression of Attenuation Wave attenuation is expressed also in terms of the logarithms of the power-density or electric-intensity ratios, an alternative method widely used in describing signal ampliﬁcation or attenuation in telephone and radio systems. The decibel attenuation is simply ten times the common (base 10) logarithm of the power-density ratio or twenty times the logarithm of the electric-intensity ratio. It may be readily veriﬁed that these deﬁnitions lead to the same decibel values for a given distance ratio RC/RB when applied to (1–6) and (1–11).
34 Electromagnetic Waves ionosphere. This layer of electrically charged particles (actually, several layer-like regions at different altitudes) acts as a reﬂector of radio waves at the lower frequencies—generally from about 10 MHz downward, although the exact upper limit varies with time of day and other factors. The ionization is produced by the sun’s radiation and so is most intense in the daytime; however, it persists to some degree through the night so that ionospheric propagation is possible throughout the twenty-four hours at some frequencies.
M = m0). Thus, for most lossless dielectrics, the index of refraction n is the ratio ε ε 0 , where e/e0 is the relative permittivity er. Therefore, from (1–16), one may usually write sin θ1 ε = r2 sin θ 2 ε r1 (1–20) To account for the conduction current and ohmic losses in a nonideal dielectric, er is expressed as e″r − je′r, where e′r is the relative permittivity related to the displacement current (Appendix A) and e″r is the relative permittivity related to the conduction current. The reader may recognize that er is a complex number (for a review, see Appendix C).