By Karl S. Drlica, David S. Perlin
As pathogenic micro organism evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our skill to manage and deal with infectious illnesses. Antibiotic Resistance completely illuminates this significant factor for healthcare pros, researchers, scholars, and policymakers. best investigators clarify what resistance is, the way it emerges, which human actions give a contribution, and the way to bolster our defenses.
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Additional resources for Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis
To measure drug concentration effects, a series of tubes is set up in which antibiotic concentration is varied with incubation time being kept constant. In this assay, the concentration that kills the microbes is called the lethal dose (LD), usually defined in terms of the fraction killed. For example, LD90 would be the dose that kills 90% of the microbial population in a specified time. 9% in an 18-hour incubation (for rapidly growing microbes). It is important to distinguish killing (MBC and LD) from blocking growth (MIC).
Pathogen Studies Focus on Populations Although infection of individuals can begin with one or a few pathogen cells or virus particles, we are usually concerned with the behavior of large populations. An important property of large microbial populations is that they are not homogeneous, even if they start from a single cell. At any given time, some cells are carrying out different biochemical processes than other cells in the population. Moreover, pathogen populations contain small subpopulations of mutants— between one in a million (10-6) and one in a hundred million (10-8).
One example concerns tuberculosis. With this bacterial disease, samples of sputum (mucus and fluids coughed up from lungs) are stained in a way that distinguishes M. tuberculosis from other bacteria. This microscopic diagnosis is rapid, low-tech, and inexpensive. Unfortunately, microscopy does not detect all cases of tuberculosis, in part because the sample is small. Thus, other detection techniques, such as culture methods that enable bacteria to reproduce, are also important. Most microbes are so small that little detail is seen by light microscopy.