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Additional info for Attachment in Psychotherapy
THE INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF ATTACHMENT PATTERNS Attachment patterns, as previously noted, have a strong propensity to persist across generations. In the aftermath of Main’s original investigation, van IJzendoorn (1995) conducted a meta-analysis of the comparable studies then available (involving 18 samples in six countries) and concluded that the parents’ AAI classification generally predicted the Strange Situation classification of their infants.
The Strange Situation protocol has been said, in fact, to identify a relationship rather than a trait of the infant’s personality. ” 1 (p. 437). Mary Main 29 The AAI consists of a series of questions (and follow-up “probes”) that explicitly draw attention to memories related to attachment. After being asked for an overall description of the childhood relationship with both parents, interviewees are invited to choose five adjectives or phrases that best describe their early relationship with each parent and then are asked to support each of these descriptors, one after the other, with recollections: “Loving, you used the word loving to describe your relationship with your mother.
And from that point onwards my mission in life was to demonstrate that real-life experiences have a very important effect on development. (p. 46) Bowlby’s emphasis on the realities of how we are treated by those who matter most to us arose only partly in reaction to the psychoanalytic shibboleths of his day. More important, perhaps, was his exposure to children in extremis—specifically children whose relationships with their mothers had been disrupted by deprivation, separation, or loss. Working in the late 1930s as a psychiatrist at London’s Child Guidance Center, Bowlby spent nearly three years treating and studying delinquent boys; he detailed the catastrophic impact of protracted separations in early childhood in “FortyFour Juvenile Thieves: Their Characters and Home-life” (1944).