By Gary A. Flandro, Howard M. McMahon, Robert L. Roach
Within the quickly advancing box of flight aerodynamics, it is necessary for college students to totally grasp the basics. this article, written by means of well known specialists, truly provides the fundamental thoughts of underlying aerodynamic prediction method. those ideas are heavily associated with actual ideas in order that they should be extra easily retained and their limits of applicability are totally preferred. the final word aim is to supply the coed with the required instruments to expectantly technique and resolve of sensible flight automobile layout difficulties of present and destiny curiosity. The textual content is designed to be used in path in aerodynamics on the complex undergraduate or graduate point. A finished set of workout difficulties is incorporated on the finish of every bankruptcy.
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Additional resources for Basic aerodynamics : incompressible flow
For example, we refer to the pressure altitude as the altitude corresponding to a standard atmospheric value for the static pressure measured outside the vehicle. 28 indicates that if the density and gravity were constant, the pressure would decrease linearly with altitude. However, this does not account for observable features of the atmosphere; effects of temperature and density changes also must be considered. 28 is the basis of a set of atmospheric representations called standard atmospheres.
You are asked to determine the drag force exerted on a low-drag automobile design at a speed of 150 mph and an air temperature of 62°F. A one-fifth scale model is to be tested in a water tunnel at 70°F. Determine the required water velocity for dynamic similarity between the prototype car and the model. If the drag force on the model is measured at 10 lbf, determine the expected drag on the automobile. Derive an expression for the terminal velocity of a parachutist falling through air if the velocity V depends on the parachute diameter d, air density, viscosity, acceleration due to gravity, and mass of the parachutist.
Other variables become important when additional physical effects must be accounted for, such as compressibility. For instance, as the speed of a vehicle approaches a significant percentage of the speed of sound, several changes take place in the flow-field characteristics and in the accompanying forces on the vehicle. If the representative aircraft shown in Figs. 12 in Chapter 1 are studied, it becomes apparent that drastic changes in design accompany the increases in speed. Compare the pictures of the high-speed seaplanes used in the Schneider Cup races with the supersonic F-22 and the Concorde transport; quite different shapes are required when the speed is higher than the speed of sound.