By Abul K. Abbas MBBS, Andrew H. H. Lichtman MD PhD, Shiv Pillai MBBS PhD
Understand all of the crucial ideas in immunology with Basic Immunology: services and problems of the Immune System! This concise, concentrated textual content will give you an up-to-date, obtainable creation to the workings of the human immune approach.
- Efficiently grasp the immunology info you wish through clinically concentrated content material, logically equipped by way of mechanism.
- Apply what you could have realized to real-world occasions by referencing the appendix of scientific circumstances.
- Enhance your learning with assistance from a number of full-color illustrations and worthwhile tables, in addition to precis bins, evaluate questions, and a thesaurus of immunology terms.
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- Visualize advanced immunology thoughts with a very up-to-date paintings program.
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Extra info for Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System, 4e
These pathways of activation have been called classical and alternative. Classical macrophage activation is induced by innate immune signals, such as from TLRs, and by the cytokine IFN-γ, which may be produced in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Classically activated macrophages, also called M1, are involved in destroying microbes and in triggering inflammation. Alternative macrophage Classically activated macrophage (M1) Alternatively activated macrophage (M2) Microbial TLR-ligands IFN-γ Monocyte IL-13, IL-14 ROS, NO, lysosomal enzymes Microbicidal actions: phagocytosis and killing of bacteria and fungi IL-1, IL-12, IL-23, chemokines IL-10, TGF-β Proline polyamines, TGF-β Inflammation Antiinflammatory effects Wound repair, fibrosis FIGURE 2–10 Classical and alternative macrophage activation.
When this happens, the NK cell inhibitory receptors are not engaged, and if the virus induces expression of activating ligands at the same time, the NK cells become activated and eliminate the virus-infected cells. The role of NK cells and CTLs in defense illustrates how hosts and microbes are engaged in a constant struggle for survival. The host uses CTLs to recognize MHC-displayed viral antigens, viruses inhibit MHC expression to evade killing of the infected cells by CTLs, and NK cells can compensate for the defective CTL response because the NK cells are more effective in the absence of MHC molecules.
Thus, microbes that are coated with complement proteins are rapidly ingested and destroyed by phagocytes. This process of coating a microbe with molecules that are recognized by receptors on phagocytes is called opsonization. Second, some proteolytic fragments of complement proteins, especially C5a and C3a, are chemoattractants for leukocytes (mainly neutrophils and monocytes), so they promote leukocyte recruitment (inflammation) at the site of complement activation. Third, complement activation culminates in the formation of a polymeric protein complex that inserts into the microbial cell membrane, disturbing the permeability barrier and causing either osmotic lysis or apoptosis of the microbe.