Biotechnology of aroma compounds by R G Berger; et al

By R G Berger; et al

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Chassagne et al. (1995) have investigated the role of a number of glycosidases in the release of flavour molecules such as terpenols, aliphatic and aromatic alcohols etc. from glycosidically bound precursors present in passion fruit. The precise biochemical mechanisms whereby flavour chemicals are made by enzymes is increasingly coming under rigorous scrutiny. Fronza et al. (1996) have demonstrated the stereochemistry of the double bond saturation step involved in the formation of raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenol)-2-butanone by bakers yeast.

A yeast was used that partially metabolises L-phenylalanine by deamination, decarboxylation, and then reduction, but carries out very little subsequent metabolism, enabling high yields of 2-phenylethanol to be obtained by solvent extraction of the fermentation broth. Yeast strains with improved abilities to make 2-phenylethanol were obtained by selecting strains of yeast that are resistant to the phenylalanine analogues or p-fluorophenylalanine [20]. This process is aided by plentiful cheap supplies of L-phenylalanine which is now produced extensively as a precursor of the high-intensity sweetener, Aspartame.

It acts only after salt-tolerant yeasts have raised the p H to about 6. By contrast to Penicillium roqueforti, Brevibacterium linens does not produce lipases but proteinases, and then metabolises the resulting amino acids producing a range of flavour chemicals such as 3-methyl-l-butanol, phenylethanol, methanethiol and m a n y others. Table 11 lists some of the key a r o m a chemicals involved in producing the flavour characteristics of a wide variety of traditional dairy products. At the beginning of research about 25 years ago, the focus was on how to accelerate the ripening of cheese to make storage cost savings.

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