Biotechnology of Aroma Compounds (Advances in Biochemical by R.G. Berger, Jan A.M.de Bont, P.S.J. Cheetham, R. Croteau,

By R.G. Berger, Jan A.M.de Bont, P.S.J. Cheetham, R. Croteau, I.L. Gatfield, J.-B. Gros, C. Larroche, D.J. Leak, D. McCaskill, P. Schreier, A.H. Scragg, G.K. Skouroumounis, M.J. van der Werf, P. Winterhalter

Discussing the biotechnology of aroma compounds, this paintings comprises insurance of: enzymes and flavour biotechnology; glycoconjugated aroma compounds - occurence, position and biotechnological transformation; and clients for the bioengineering of isoprenoid biosynthesis.

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Enhanced inosine production was achieved by constructing an IMP-dehydrogenase deficient mutant strain by in vitro mutation and recombination. This modification works because this enzyme is responsible for channelling IMP into guanosine synthesis. Similarly, guanosine production can be enhanced by increasing the number of gene copies of the IMP dehydrogenase [45]. More conventional technologies can also be used; for instance, Yasuyuki et al. [-46] enhanced the glutamine content of the kojiderived Huki seasonings by treating them with immobilised glutaminase.

Most flavours are true secondary products formed from the further metabolism of primary metabolites such as amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids, such as O Formed from " ~ \ A / N/ \ H [sovaleraldehyde + NH2- CH2- CH2- SH Cysteamine(by decarboxylation of cysteine)which is formed It is of interest that 2,6-nonadienal, identified as being responsible for cucumber aroma, which is produced from linoleic acid by lipoxygenase, hydroperoxide j ~ ~ / . CHO lyase and then isomerase, and 1-octen-3-one has now been found to be the key mushroom flavour chemical with a threshold 100 fold lower than 1-octen-3-ol.

In addition, 7-decalactone is a chiral molecule, and Combiningthe TechnicalPush and the BusinessPull for Natural Flavours 27 molecules extracted from fruit have a defined stereospecificity. The (R)-isomer predominates in peaches and most other fruit, but appreciable amounts of the (S)-isomer are found in some varieties of mango. Chemical synthesis of 7decalactone only yields a racemic mixture. Therefore, a microorganism capable of forming optically active 7-decalactone was sought by a number of companies by screening naturally occurring microorganisms.

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