By Sleiman Bou-Sleiman, Mohammed Ismail
This ebook will introduce layout methodologies, often called Built-in-Self-Test (BiST) and Built-in-Self-Calibration (BiSC), which counterpoint the robustness of radio frequency (RF) and millimeter wave (mmWave) built-in circuits (ICs). those circuits are utilized in present and rising communique, computing, multimedia and biomedical items and microchips. The layout methodologies provided will lead to bettering the yield (percentage of operating chips in a excessive quantity run) of RF and mmWave ICs with a view to let profitable production of such microchips in excessive quantity.
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Extra resources for Built-in-Self-Test and Digital Self-Calibration for RF SoCs
Broadband operation: The detector’s ability to cover a wide range of frequencies will enable its use in multi-standard RF SoCs. 5. Accurate and sensitive response: A stable and accurate high-frequency-to-dc conversion will allow for very ﬁne detection of small amplitude changes. 1) where Vfullscale is the ADC fullscale, ADCbits the number of bits of the ADC and Arf-dc the RF-to-dc conversion gain. The above requirements place guidelines for the design of a suitable detector for inclusion in an RF BiST scheme.
While the former can be easily ﬁltered, the latter is problematic in the case of zero-IF receivers as it falls close to dc. Therefore, second order intermodulation is problematic for mixers. Third order intermodulations are the hardest to get rid of as they fall extremely close to the two tones and within the band of interest, in case of an LNA for example. Third order intermodulation is tested by applying two closely-spaced and equal power tones. The intercept point at which the third order intermodulations, that increase cubically with input power, equal the main tones (that increase linearly with input power) is called IP3, and consequently the input power at that point is called IIP3, as shown in Fig.
Also, differences in the two mixers’ gains contribute to the mismatch. If the amplitude and phases of the paths are not matched, the image rejection ratio, which represents how much of the undesired image has been suppressed, will be adversely affected. 4) where a is the amplitude imbalance (expressed as a ratio) and j is the angle mismatch from perfect quadrature between the two paths. A value greater than 60 dB is often desired but slight imbalances cause a disproportionate drop in that value.