By Srinivasan Sivaram
In early 1987 i used to be trying to improve a CVD-based tungsten procedure for Intel. At each step ofthe improvement, info that we have been accumulating needed to be analyzed in gentle of theories and hypotheses from books and papers in lots of unrelated topics. Thesesources have been so extensively assorted that I got here to achieve there has been no unifying remedy of CVD and its subprocesses. extra curiously, my colleagues within the have been from many disciplines (a floor chemist, a mechanical engineer, a geologist, and an electric engineer werein my group). to assist us comprehend the sphere of CVD and its gamers, a few of us equipped the CVD user's team of Northern California in 1988. the assumption for writing a booklet at the topic happened to me in the course of that point. I had already geared up my ideas for a direction I taught at San Jose nation college. Later Van Nostrand agreed to submit my e-book as a textual content meant for college students on the senior/first 12 months graduate point and for method engineers within the microelectronics undefined, This e-book isn't really meant to be bibliographical, and it doesn't disguise each new fabric being studied for chemical vapor deposition. however, it does current the rules of CVD at a basic point whereas uniting them with the desires of the microelectronics industry.
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Extra info for Chemical Vapor Deposition: Thermal and Plasma Deposition of Electronic Materials
7 can be considered a high temperature. 82. 2. 2. Evolution of Order (Crystallinity) Two processes that occur simultaneously during film growth result in a transition from a complete Iack of order in amorphous films to the fine-grained polycrystalline state. The first is growth of crystallites by accommodation of incident material onto already formed islands. The second is a recrystallization process in which crystallites oriented in nonfavorable growth directions are consumed by grains growing in favorable directions.
Imagine this to be similar to an inflated balloon. All of the stresses in the skin of the balloon are only in the plane of the balloon surface at every location, even though there is a hydrostatic gas pressure inside the balloon. Stressesare assumed tobe uniform along the thickness ofthe film; this may not be rigorously true but it is useful as a mathematical simplification. Structural imperfections, such as grain boundaries, vacancies, and dislocations, inhibit the movement of other dislocations, increasing the yield stress 28 Chemical Vapor Deposition Film Stress in plane Substrate Schematic representation of stress in thin films attached to substrates.
B. , Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1990. 21. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, John Wiley, New York, 1966. Chapter 3 Manufacturability This chapter is different from the rest of the book. lt is not directly pertinent to the art or science of CVD; instead it deals with the development process. It provides a framework to increase the efficiency with which processes can be made manufacturable. I believe this framework should be a prerequisite for all process/equipment engineers who hope to work in the microelectronic industry.