Chemicals for Life and Living by Eiichiro Ochiai

By Eiichiro Ochiai

Chemicals frequently have a detrimental photo one of the common public. yet there is not any fabric international or certainly humans with no chemical compounds. the cloth international is operated by means of chemical substances. The name ‘Chemicals for all times and residing’ signifies that the fabric international is staged and performed via chemical compounds. The publication contains 5 components and an appendix. half 1 – necessities for all times; half 2 – bettering health and wellbeing; half three – For the thrill of existence; half four – Chemistry of the universe and earth, and half five - a few unwanted effects of chemical substances. The appendix offers a short precis of what chemistry is all approximately, together with a brief bankruptcy of chemical ideas. No quantitative calculations are incorporated during this booklet in order that it truly is attractive for everybody – not only chemists.

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5 Why Is Seawater Blue? Water in a glass looks colorless and transparent, does not it? However, seawater looks blue. The fact that a substance is colorless suggests that it does not absorb nor emit light in the visible range (320–800 nm in wavelength). Water molecules do absorb light in the visible range (red region), though very weakly. This is believed to be due to the overtone of vibrational frequency of water molecule. However, it absorbs so weakly that shallow or small quantity of water does look like not absorbing light and thus appears colorless.

It does not mean that no change has occurred to nitrogen. Some reactions have taken place and do take place with nitrogen. Nitrogen, for example, can react with oxygen in the atmosphere under, say, lightning conditions. ) form. More importantly, nitrogen is fixed as E. 1007/978-3-642-20273-5_2, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011 15 16 2 Air ammonia by a number of microorganisms; the reaction is: N 2 + 6H + + 6e → 2NH 3 . Ammonia (NH3) is utilized by organisms, and it eventually turns back to nitrogen (N2) or nitrate (NO3−).

One can be called “acid–base” type and the other “oxidation–reduction” type. In fact, these are the two basic types of chemical reactions, whether organic or inorganic (see Chap. 19). Some reactions, however, may not easily be classified into either of these. One exception is reactions of free radical type. One such example is discussed in Sect. 3. 1 Reactions of “Acid–Base” Type “Acid and base” was talked about in other chapters (for example, Chaps. 1 and 19). The sourness of vinegar is due to an acid, acetic acid CH3COOH, which gives rise to H+ (proton) that is responsible for the acidity.

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