By Dixian Zhao, Patrick Reynaert
This booklet makes a speciality of the improvement of layout thoughts and methodologies for 60-GHz and E-band energy amplifiers and transmitters at gadget, circuit and structure degrees. The authors express the hot improvement of millimeter-wave layout suggestions, specifically of energy amplifiers and transmitters, and provides novel layout suggestions, similar to “power transistor structure” and “4-way parallel-series strength combiner”, which can increase the output energy and potency of energy amplifiers in a compact silicon zone. 5 cutting-edge 60-GHz and E-band designs with measured effects are proven to turn out the effectiveness of the layout strategies and hands-on methodologies provided. This e-book serves as a necessary reference for circuit designers to strengthen millimeter-wave construction blocks for destiny 5G applications.
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Extra resources for CMOS 60-GHz and E-band Power Amplifiers and Transmitters
3 Vias are merged in EM simulations to reduce the simulation time. 3 Passive Device 49 Fig. 20 Differential T-lines on top-metal and its lossless model. (a) T-line 1: no floating metal strips. (b) T-line 2: floating strips on metal-1. (c) T-line 3: floating strips on metal-9. 3 Transmission Lines Transmission lines (T-lines) are important structures for mm-Wave design. At mmWave, T-line-based reactive components and matching circuits become physically small and are implementable on chip . The advantage of using T-lines is that it is easy to build scalable model so that the time-consuming EM-simulation is not required.
To appreciate the impact of interconnect parasitics, the degradation of the unilateral power gain of a common-source amplifier is studied at 60 GHz based on the setup in Fig. 4. 1 ZGT , ZST , and ZDT represent the lumped parasitic impedance of the gate, source, and drain metal lines. The dc feeds in Fig. 4 behave as RF chock and provide the bias and supply voltages for the amplifier. 2 mA/m. 1 mA/m is chosen in the PA designs of this work for high PA efficiency. 36 3 mm-Wave Active and Passive Devices Fig.
CGD C Cneu / for the common-mode signal. It can also be alleviated by the use of a transformer. This can be understood as the common-mode current will be canceled inside the transformer if the center tap of either the primary or the secondary winding of the transformer is floating or connected to a high impedance. 13 compares the simulated -factor with and without the transformer for both differential- and common-mode signal from 10 to 90 GHz. When the input transformer is added in the simulation, the amplifier is unconditionally stable in both differential and common modes.