By Shaopei Lin, Zhen Huang
This book offers comparative layout as an method of the conceptual layout of constructions. essentially targeting average structural functionality, sustainable improvement and architectural aesthetics, it good points exact stories of structural functionality in the course of the composition and de-composition of those parts for a number of constructions, similar to high-rise constructions, long-span crossings and spatial constructions. The latter a part of the publication addresses the theoretical foundation and sensible implementation of data engineering in structural layout, and a case-based fuzzy reasoning approach is brought to demonstrate the idea that and approach to clever layout. The booklet is meant for civil engineers, structural designers and designers, in addition to senior undergraduate and graduate scholars in civil engineering and architecture. Lin Shaopei and Huang Zhen are either Professors on the division of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong collage, China.
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Additional info for Comparative Design of Structures: Concepts and Methodologies
Architects put more emphasis on general and global aspects, such as spatial forms and atmosphere created. On the other hand, structural engineers focus more on tangible and concrete structures and detail aspects. Different ways of thinking sometimes result in difﬁculty in communication. Architects deal with issues in a global and top-to-bottom way. On the basis of experience, they take primal conditions, restraints, and available resources into consideration so as to conceive a spatial arrangement with the emphasis upon the entire structural system.
3. Vertical snow load Snow load is a vertical load acts upon roofs. In cold regions, snow load sometimes becomes the control load in structural design. When that is the case, careful calculation has to be conducted with reference to relevant design code . 1 Standard value of some common service live loads  Application Classiﬁcation Standard value (kN/m2) Floor Residences, hotels, ofﬁce buildings, classrooms, etc. Auditoriums, theaters, cinemas, etc. Malls, exhibition halls, station halls, etc.
11b illustrates the approach to locally reinforce the transverse stiffness of the wing so that local compressive buckling of the wing is prevented, and thus the overall bearing capacity of the beam is enhanced. As load increases, buckling failure could happen to the web or bottom plate due to lack of restrains. 11c shows that horizontal reinforcement is installed to prevent local buckling at the web or bottom plate, and the overall bearing capacity of beam is further enhanced. Although structural dynamics and structural stability are not of same nature, they are apparently interactive with each other.