By Prof. Robert S.P. Beekes, Dr. Michiel de Vaan
This booklet provides a entire advent to Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. It starts off with a presentation of the languages of the kinfolk (from English and the opposite Germanic languages, the Celtic and Slavic languages, Latin, Greek and Sanskrit via Armenian and Albanian) and a dialogue of the tradition and beginning of the Indo-Europeans, the audio system of the Indo-European proto-language.The reader is brought into the character of language switch and the tools of reconstruction of older language levels, with many examples (from the Indo-European languages). an entire description is given of the sound alterations, which makes it attainable to keep on with the beginning of the various Indo-European languages step-by-step. this can be by way of a dialogue of the advance of all of the morphological different types of Proto-Indo-European. The e-book offers the newest in scholarly insights, just like the laryngeal and glottalic thought, the accentuation, the ablaut styles, and those are systematically built-in into the therapy. The textual content of this moment variation has been corrected and up to date via Michiel de Vaan. Sixty-six new routines permit the coed to perform the reconstruction of PIE phonology and morphology.
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Additional info for Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An introduction
This yields the following picture of the PIE declension (parentheses indicate uncertainty) in the left-hand column: (V)sâ•‚(V)m(i) Vsâ•‚(i) Vs-t(i) sâ•‚(V)mVs (V)s-t(h)V s-Vnt(i) *h1és â•‚mi *h1és â•‚si *h1és-ti *h1s-més *h1s-th1é *h1s-énti To the right, I have set out the present-day reconstruction of ‘to be’. It appears that the reconstruction we have just proposed comes quite close to the truth, assuming that the currently accepted reconstruction is itself accurate. Cœurdoux drew the correct conclusion: these languages must have derived from a common ancestor.
The third reason is that the notion of analyzing words never occurred to the Greeks, something which was well advanced in India. This fact, together with a lack of insight into how sounds of a language change, led them to propose the most arbitrary ‘etymologies’. A good example of this is the derivation of the Latin word fenestra, ‘opening in a wall, window,’ as feret nos extra, ‘it carries us out (of the house)’, so from fe-n-extra. The meaning which is assumed is, of course, nonsensical, and the supposed contraction of three words (among which ‘us’) into one word, together with the assumed reduction of sounds, is almost without parallel anywhere (words of the ‘Jack-in-the-box’ variety are quite rare).
C. â•¯16) Latin became the common language of different countries due to the expansion of the Roman empire. This was the origin of the various Romance languages, such as Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Romanian. All these languages are, then, IndoEuropean, but we will not deal with them further as our purpose is to emphasize the oldest history of the Indo-European languages. Occasionally, we shall wish to refer to one or more of the Romance languages when examining the linguistic history of Latin.